# Expressions¶

Expressions arise from the user of literals, operators and function calls. Due to the type system, the need may arise to supplement type information on expressions in order to write better code. Hence, on select expressions under specific circumstances, type instances can be set on expressions.

This functionality becomes handy when declaring variables where one doens’t want to set the type instance on the variable itself, maybe due to style concerns. Or more importantly when passing an expression with an incomplete type to a function as argument.

## Literal expressions¶

Though totally not needed, the ability to set type instances on literals is allowed.

-- type information on an integer literal, just in case
12:int

-- string
"Hello World":string


## Values from value constructors¶

The ability to set type instances on expressions become important. If one wants to pass, say None as a function argument, one has to supply it with complete type information. This because expressions passed to functions must always have a complete type and None doesn’t.

-- calling a function that expects <maybe(int)> and passing it None
-- the following will fail since None has incomplete type information
f(None)


To fix the code above, one supplies a type instance to None as follows:

-- the following will work as expected
f(None:maybe(int))


The ability to attach a type instance to (select) expressions avoids the need to always declare a variable and attach the type instance on the variable.

Here is a more complicated example that illustrates the point.

-- a gender type
type gender = ():
Male
| Female
| Queer

-- a user type
type user = (a):
User(
name    : string,
age     : int,
gender  : maybe(a)
)

-- we create a user with an incomplete type
var u = User(
name    = "Alexis Doe",
age     = 21
gender  = None
):user(gender) -- since gender is <None>, we need to give a complete type and here we attached it on the expression itself

-- the above is equally similar to the following
-- we attach the type instance on the variable name itself
var u:user(gender) = User(
name    = "Alexis Doe",
age     = 21
gender  = None
)


If one needed to pass a plain user value without declaring a variable, this syntax becomes the only way to provide values with complete type information to functions.

## Tuple expressions¶

As with values constructed from value constructors, tuples can also have type instances attached to them for the same reasons elaborated on above.

-- a tuple with an incomplete type made complete by attaching a type instance
var tuple = ("Margaret Doe", None):(string, maybe(int))


Warning

If you have a tuple of only one element, always add a comma after that one element else you will be created a grouped expression instead of a tuple. This works as follows: (True,). Note the comma after the only element that makes the tuple.

## List expressions¶

Type instances can be attached to lists as well. This is particularly important for empty lists since every expressions must have a type instance in Avalon.

-- things can get hairy quite fast
var list = [Just(None), Just(Just(0))]:[maybe(maybe(int))]

-- empty lists must have a type instance
var list = []:[int]


## Map expressions¶

Type instances can be attached to maps as well.

-- we declare an empty map with strings as key and integers as values
var others = {}:{string:int}


## Conditional expressions¶

Avalon offers conditional expressions in order to avoid the use of an if statement for simple expressions. The syntax is primary_expression if condition else alternative_expression.

The primary_expression will be returned if the condition is True and the alternative_expression will be returned otherwise.

val age = 90
var maturity = "Major" if age > 18 else "Minor"


There are restriction on conditional expressions to be aware of when using them.

• Conditional expressions cannot be nested. This means that one cannot use a conditional expression as a primary_expression nor as a condition nor as an alternative_expression.
• The primary_expression must be have the same type instance as the alternative_expression.
• If the primary_expression is a string, list or map, it must have the same length as the alternative_expression.

## Restrictions on type instance attachment¶

A type instance cannot be attached to an expression used a key of a map expression.